Requirements for the development of social systems.

  • Truth: Creating information to choose efficient means and improve efficiency.
  • Plenty: Making resources available, known, and defended to pursue goals.
  • Good: Ethical/moral function of social systems that removes internal conflict, social conflict, and promotes cooperation to meet social goals.
  • Beauty: Inspiring and rewarding the pursuit of ideals.


  1. Russell Ackoff, “Learning and Legacy of Dr. W. Edwards Deming - Continuous Improvement,” (See notes.)