Results of two-variable organization designs (underdoing bottom priority).

Stems from the belief that either variables tradeoff proportionally or that two variables can be maximized together without tradeoff.

  • Underdoing autonomy ignores the aspirations of members. Lean principles can underserve the organization’s constituents.
  • Underdoing control causes dysfunction: specialists, hierarchy, and limits are important to high function.
  • Underdoing cooperation is common in western culture—collaboration is an afterthought when viewing the world as always rebalancing big picture control with more localized autonomous speed.


  1. Robert W Keidel, Seeing Organizational Patterns: A New Theory and Language of Organizational Design (Washington, D.C.: Beard Books, 2005). (See notes.)