Resource utilization must be less than full to allow flow.

A simple example of sequential task flow between multiple participants shows:rK4

  • At full utilization, flow is reduced to a crawl as each step constitutes a bottleneck.
  • Focusing on one item at a time means the overall system is wasting capability.
  • Changing to a pull-based, rather than push-based, model allowed the system to maximize throughput and minimize waste.

  1. Henrik Kniberg, “The Resource Utilization Trap,” 2014, (See notes.)