Project plans typically include multiple artifacts.

  • Dependency maps show which activities have to be done in which order, especially relating to coordination across teams.
  • Deployment plans show final testing, deployment, and post-deployment activities.
  • User acceptance testing (UAT) plans how testers will confirm what’s being shipped will meet the original requirements.
  • Tasks exist at a lower level and are planned by engineers.


  1. Camille Fournier, The Manager’s Path: A Guide for Tech Leaders Navigating Growth and Change, ed. Laurel Ruma, First Edition (Beijing: O’Reilly, 2017). (See notes.)