Ontological stances or viewpoints.

These reference basic concepts:rV1

  • Ontological reductionism: A whole is nothing more than its parts, and ordinary objects exist through composition.
  • Ontological realism: Things objectively exist and don’t require the interpretation of an observer because the universe has meaningful “joints” by which to separate.
  • Ontological anti-realism: There are many ways to perceive the universe. Our perceptions are only as we need them to be. No objective “joints”.
  • Ontological innocense: Things arise from their simples but are not literally those simples. A thing “exists” in its own right, not necessarily as a reference to its literal parts. Things can be defined this way by introducing an application condition to provide enough context to distinguish a thing from the rest of the simples involved.
  • Ontological parasitism: Wholes must be hosted by something else cannot exist unto themselves. Object fixation/property repression has us focus on the parasite and ignore that only its materials actually exist.

  1. Vsauce, “Do Chairs Exist?,” YouTube video, 37:51, 2021-09-14, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXW-QjBsruE. (See notes.)