Basic concepts of ontology.
Especially in relation to mereology:rV1
- Ordinary objects: Average and obvious objects such as chairs.
- Composition: All things are composed of simples.
- Simples: Some basic component of the universe that is not composed itself. (In a “gunky” universe, though, there are no simples, just infinitely lower orders of composition. Contrast with “junky”, which has infinitely larger structures which everything rolls upward into.)
- Existence has senses: The neutral sense refers literally to groups of simples, while the sortal sense refers to higher-level countable objects. Simples need an application condition to have enough information to distinguish things.